Bursa (Ottoman Turkish: بورسا) was the first major and second overall capital of the Ottoman State between 1335 and 1363. The city was referred to as Hüdavendigar (Ottoman Turkish: خداوندگار 'God's gift') during the Ottoman period, while a more recent nickn
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Bursa became the first major capital city of the early Ottoman Empire following its capture from the Byzantines in 1326. As a result, the city witnessed a considerable amount of urban growth throughout the 14th century. After conquering Edirne (Adrianople) in East Thrace, the Ottomans turned it into the new capital city in 1363, but Bursa retained its spiritual and commercial importance in the Ottoman Empire.The Ottoman sultan Bayezid I built the Bayezid Klliyesi (Bayezid I theological complex) in Bursa between 1390 and 1395and the Ulu Cami (Grand Mosque) between 1396 and 1400.After Bayezid was defeated in the Battle of Ankara by the forces Timur in 1402, the latter's grandson, Muhammad Sultan Mirza had the city pillaged and burned.Despite this, Bursa remained to be the most important administrative and commercial centre in the empire until Mehmed II conqueredConstantinople in 1453. The population of Bursa was 45,000 in 1487.
During the Ottoman period, Bursa continued to be the source of most royal silk products. Aside from the local silk production, the city imported raw silk from Iran, and occasionally from China, and was the main production centre for the kaftans, pillows, embroidery and other silk products for the Ottoman palaces until the 17th century.
Following the foundation of the Republic of Turkey in 1923, Bursa became one of the industrial centres of the country. The economic development of the city was followed by population growth and Bursa became the 4th most populous city in Turkey.
The city has traditionally been a pole of attraction, and was a major centre for refugees from various ethnic backgrounds who immigrated to Anatolia from the Balkans during the loss of the Ottoman territories in Europebetween the late 19th and early 20th centuries. The most recent arrival of Balkan Turks took place in the 1940s until the 1990s, when the People's Republic of Bulgaria expelled approximately 150,000 Bulgarian Turks to Turkey.About one-third of these 150,000 Bulgarian Turkish refugees eventually settled in Bursa.
Bursa is the centre of the Turkish automotive industry. Factories of motor vehicleproducers like Fiat, Renault and Karsan, as well as automotive parts producers like Bosch, Mako, Valeo, Johnson Controls, Delphi have been active in the city for decades. The textileand food industries are equally strong, with Coca-Cola, Pepsi Cola and other beverage brands, as well as fresh and canned foodindustries being present in the city's organized industrial zones.
The city has one professional football club, Bursaspor, which competes in the Turkish Super League, the top-tier of Turkish football. As of December 21, the team plays their home games at The Timsah Arena stadium (literally meaning Crocodile Arena), which has a sitting capacity of 45,000. Bursaspor has won its first league title in the 200910 Turkish Super League season, becoming the second Anatolian club to ever win the league title after Trabzonspor. Today Bursaspor is considered one of the five biggest football clubs in Turkey along with Galatasaray SK, Fenerbahe, Beşiktaş, and Trabzonspor.